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Linda Grigoraki

Linda Grigoraki

Research Scientist
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+30-2810-391166
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Mosquito transmitted diseases are of global importance causing morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main way to prevent these diseases is through vector control. Insecticide-based vector control interventions have had impressive results, but are now threatened by the rising levels of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. If we want to manage the problem of insecticide resistance we need to understand its genetic basis. Molecular and biochemical research has revealed several mechanisms associated with the phenotype of insecticide resistance, which is an important first step for designing mitigation strategies. Functional validation of the mechanisms has been achieved in some cases, however, the role of many candidate genes and genetic modifications remains elusive. We also lack critical knowledge on the effect size of each mechanism and how the different mechanisms interact to determine the intensity of the phenotype. My research focuses on the functional validation, through genetic engineering (Gal4-UAS system, CRISPR), of candidate genes and mutations in An. gambiae (the major vector of malaria) insecticide resistance, aiming to better understand the phenomenon and design more efficient management strategies. I am also interested in how insecticide resistance mechanisms affect the efficiency of volatile insecticides.

Williams J, Cowlishaw R, Sanou A, Ranson H, Grigoraki L. (2022) In vivo functional validation of the V402L voltage gated sodium channel mutation in the malaria vector An. gambiae. Pest Manag Sci. 78:1155-1163.

Grigoraki L, Cowlishaw R, Nolan T, Donnelly M, Lycett G, Ranson H. (2021) CRISPR/Cas9 modified An. gambiae carrying kdr mutation L1014F functionally validate its contribution in insecticide resistance and combined effect with metabolic enzymes. PLoS Genet. 17:e1009556.

Poulton BC, Colman F, Anthousi A, Grigoraki L, Adolfi A, Lynd A, Lycett GJ. (2021) Using the GAL4-UAS System for Functional Genetics in Anopheles gambiae. J Vis Exp. (170).

Grigoraki L, Grau-Bové X, Carrington Yates H, Lycett GJ, Ranson H. (2020) Isolation and transcriptomic analysis of Anopheles gambiae oenocytes enables the delineation of hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Elife. 9:e58019.

Vontas J, Grigoraki L, Morgan J, Tsakireli D, Fuseini G, Segura L, Niemczura de Carvalho J, Nguema R, Weetman D, Slotman MA, Hemingway J. (2018) Rapid selection of a pyrethroid metabolic enzyme CYP9K1 by operational malaria control activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 115:4619-4624.

Wagner I, Grigoraki L, Enevoldson P, Clarkson M, Jones S, Hurst JL, et al. Rapid identification of mosquito species and age by mass spectrometric analysis. BMC Biol. 2023;21(1):10.

Ingham V, Grigoraki L and Ranson H. Pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae (review article submitted to Entomologia Generalis)

Grigoraki L, Nauen R, Ranson H, Lycett G and Vontas J.  Genetic modification tools in mosquitoes revolutionize our ability to functionally analyze insecticide resistance (review article submitted to Entomologia Generalis)

Williams J, Cowlishaw R, Sanou A, Ranson H, Grigoraki L. In vivo functional validation of the V402L voltage gated sodium channel mutation in the malaria vector An. gambiae. Pest Manag Sci. 2022;78(3):1155-63.

Grigoraki L, Cowlishaw R, Nolan T, Donnelly M, Lycett G, Ranson H. CRISPR/Cas9 modified An. gambiae carrying kdr mutation L1014F functionally validate its contribution in insecticide resistance and combined effect with metabolic enzymes. PLoS Genet. 2021;17(7):e1009556.

Poulton BC, Colman F, Anthousi A, Grigoraki L, Adolfi A, Lynd A, et al. Using the GAL4-UAS System for Functional Genetics in Anopheles gambiae. J Vis Exp. 2021(170).

Grigoraki L, Grau-Bove X, Carrington Yates H, Lycett GJ, Ranson H. Isolation and transcriptomic analysis of Anopheles gambiae oenocytes enables the delineation of hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Elife. 2020;9.

Bajda S, Grigoraki L. Integrated pest management: Novel tools, remaining challenges, and intriguing non-target effects. Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2020;39:iii-v.

Balaska S, Fotakis EA, Kioulos I, Grigoraki L, Mpellou S, Chaskopoulou A, et al. Bioassay and molecular monitoring of insecticide resistance status in Aedes albopictus populations from Greece, to support evidence-based vector control. Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):328.

Fotakis EA, Mastrantonio V, Grigoraki L, Porretta D, Puggioli A, Chaskopoulou A, et al. Identification and detection of a novel point mutation in the Chitin Synthase gene of Culex pipiens associated with diflubenzuron resistance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(5):e0008284.

Wei P, Demaeght P, De Schutter K, Grigoraki L, Labropoulou V, Riga M, et al. Overexpression of an alternative allele of carboxyl/choline esterase 4 (CCE04) of Tetranychus urticae is associated with high levels of resistance to the keto-enol acaricide spirodiclofen. Pest Manag Sci. 2020;76(3):1142-53.

Vontas J, Grigoraki L, Morgan J, Tsakireli D, Fuseini G, Segura L, et al. Rapid selection of a pyrethroid metabolic enzyme CYP9K1 by operational malaria control activities. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2018;115(18):4619-24.

Balabanidou V, Grigoraki L and Vontas J. (2018) Insect cuticle: a critical determinant of insecticide resistance. Current Opinion in Insect science (27) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2018.03.001.

Grigoraki L, Puggioli A, Mavridis K, Douris V, Monatanary M, Bellini R and Vontas J.  (2017) Striking diflubenzuron resistance in Culex pipiens, the prime vector of West Nile Virus. Scientific Reports 15;7(1):11699. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12103-1.

Grigoraki L, Pipini D, Labbé P, Chaskopoulou A, Weill M, and Vontas J. (2017). Carboxylesterase gene amplifications associated with insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus: Geographical distribution and evolutionary origin. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(4), e0005533. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005533

Seixas G, Grigoraki L, Weetman D, Vicente J. L., Silva A. C., Pinto J., Sousa C. A. (2017). Insecticide resistance is mediated by multiple mechanisms in recently introduced Aedes aegypti from Madeira Island (Portugal). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(7), e0005799. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005799

Fotakis E.A., Chaskopoulou A, Grigoraki L, Tsiamantas A, Kounadi S, Georgiou L, and Vontas J. (2017). Analysis of population structure and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes from different environments of Greece with a history of mosquito borne disease transmission. Acta Tropica, 174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.005.
 
Grigoraki L, Balabanidou V, Meristoudis C, Miridakis A, Ranson H, Swevers L, Vontas J (2016) Functional and immunohistochemical characterization of CCEae3a, a carboxylesterase associated with temephos resistance in the major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol ;74:61-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.05.007.

Grigoraki L, Lagnel J, Kioulos I, Kampouraki A, Morou E, Labbé P, Weill M, Vontas J (2015) Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis (5):e0003771. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003771.